True thrush

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

True thrushes
Male common blackbird (T. merula)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Turdidae
Genus: Turdus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Turdus viscivorus

See text

True thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Turdus of the wider thrush family, Turdidae. The genus name Turdus is Latin for "thrush".[1] The term "thrush" is used for many other birds of the family Turdidae as well as for a number of species belonging to several other families.

The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. Several species have also colonised some oceanic islands, and two species have been introduced to New Zealand. Some New World species are called robins, the most well known of which is the American robin. Several species are migratory.

While some species are often split out of Turdus, the two small thrushes formerly separated in Platycichla by many authors have been restored to the present genus in recent years.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus Turdus was introduced by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae.[2] The type species was subsequently designated as the mistle thrush.[3] The name Turdus is the Latin word for a "thrush".[4]

Current species[edit]

The genus contains 87 extant species and one recently extinct:[5]

Image Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Groundscraper thrush Turdus litsitsirupa Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
Ethiopian thrush Turdus simensis Ethiopia, Eritrea
Chinese thrush Turdus mupinensis China and far northern Vietnam
Song thrush Turdus philomelos Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Mistle thrush Turdus viscivorus Europe and temperate Asia
African thrush Turdus pelios from Senegal and Gambia in the west to South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea south to northwestern Zambia and western Angola
Príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus Príncipe
A color drawing of a brown bird with a white underbelly standing on a branch São Tomé thrush Turdus olivaceofuscus São Tomé
Abyssinian thrush Turdus abyssinicus Africa from South Sudan south to northern Mozambique
Taita thrush Turdus helleri Taita Hills in Kenya
A small brown bird with a white underbelly standing on some dirt or mulch Usambara thrush Turdus roehli Tanzania
Olive thrush Turdus olivaceus Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the north to the Cape of Good Hope
Kurrichane thrush Turdus libonyana Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
Comoro thrush Turdus bewsheri Comoros Islands
Bare-eyed thrush Turdus tephronotus Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania
Karoo thrush Turdus smithi South Africa, where it is present in Little Namaqualand, the Karoo and Northern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and parts of the North West Province
Somali thrush or Somali blackbird Turdus ludoviciae Somalia
Chinese blackbird Turdus mandarinus south, central and east China
Redwing Turdus iliacus Europe and Asia, from Iceland south to northernmost Scotland, and east through Scandinavia, the Baltic States, northern Poland and Belarus, and through most of Russia to about 165°E in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Common blackbird Turdus merula temperate Eurasia, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and South Asia
Yemen thrush Turdus menachensis Middle East
Taiwan thrush[6] Turdus niveiceps Taiwan
Grey-winged blackbird Turdus boulboul south-eastern Asia from the Himalayas to northern Vietnam
Indian blackbird Turdus simillimus India and Sri Lanka
Tickell's thrush Turdus unicolor Himalayas, and peninsular India
Black-breasted thrush Turdus dissimilis southwestern China
Japanese thrush Turdus cardis central China and Japan and northern Laos and Vietnam
Grey-backed thrush Turdus hortulorum northeastern China and Russia Far East and winters in southern China and northern Vietnam
Eyebrowed thrush Turdus obscurus Siberia south to China and Southeast Asia
Pale thrush Turdus pallidus south-east Siberia, north-east China and Korea and may breed in Japan
Grey-sided thrush Turdus feae north-east China and migrating to subtropical or tropical moist montane forest in India, and Indochina
Brown-headed thrush Turdus chrysolaus Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Hainan and the northern Philippines
Izu thrush Turdus celaenops Izu and Ryukyu Islands of Japan
Island thrush Turdus poliocephalus Taiwan, through South East Asia and Melanesia, to Samoa
Tibetan blackbird Turdus maximus Himalayas from northern Pakistan to southeastern Tibet
White-backed thrush Turdus kessleri central China
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris northern Norway, northern Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Eastern France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Siberia as far east as Transbaikal, the Aldan River, the Tian Shan Mountains in North West China, Anatolia, Israel, Iran and Northwest India, and occasionally Northeast India. It is a vagrant to Iceland, Greenland, Spitsbergen, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Madeira, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and Cyprus. It is a very rare breeder in the British Isles, but winters in large numbers in the United Kingdom, Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus western and central Europe and also in the Caucasus and in the Scandinavian mountains
Black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis east of Europe to Western Siberia and north-west Mongolia
Red-throated thrush Turdus ruficollis Asia
Dusky thrush Turdus eunomus south to southeast Asia, principally in China and neighbouring countries
Naumann's thrush Turdus naumanni South Asia to Southeast Asia
Chestnut thrush Turdus rubrocanus western Himalayas and central/southwestern China; it winters in Eastern Himalaya and northern Southeast Asia
White-collared blackbird Turdus albocinctus Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
Sulawesi thrush Turdus turdoides Sulawesi Island in Indonesia
American robin Turdus migratorius North America, from Alaska and Canada southward to northern Florida and Mexico
Black thrush Turdus infuscatus El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico
Rufous-collared thrush Turdus rufitorques Middle America, south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, occurring in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Chiapas state in Mexico
Sooty thrush Turdus nigrescens Costa Rica and western Panama
Red-legged thrush Turdus plumbeus the Bahamas, Cayman Brac, Cuba, Dominica, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Puerto Rico
Grand Cayman thrush Turdus ravidus Grand Cayman (extinct since 1938)
White-chinned thrush Turdus aurantius Jamaica
Forest thrush Turdus lherminieri Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia
Mountain thrush Turdus plebejus southern Mexico to western Panama
Pale-eyed thrush Turdus leucops Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela
White-eyed thrush Turdus jamaicensis Jamaica
La Selle thrush Turdus swalesi Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti)
Chestnut-bellied thrush Turdus fulviventris western Venezuela, western Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru and northwestern Bolivia
Plumbeous-backed thrush Turdus reevei Ecuador and Peru
Chiguanco thrush Turdus chiguanco Ecuador and the Altiplano
Andean slaty thrush Turdus nigriceps north-west Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru
Glossy-black thrush Turdus serranus northern Venezuela to northwestern Argentina
Black-hooded thrush Turdus olivater Venezuela and Colombia
Great thrush Turdus fuscater Andes in western and northern Venezuela as far as Lara and Trujillo, the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and finally, northwest Bolivia
Austral thrush Turdus falcklandii south Argentina and south and central Chile
Lawrence's thrush Turdus lawrencii Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
Pantepui thrush Turdus murinus foothills of s Venezuela and Guyana
Blacksmith thrush Turdus subalaris north-east Argentina, eastern Paraguay and southern Brazil
Creamy-bellied thrush Turdus amaurochalinus central and eastern South America
Tristan thrush Turdus eremita British overseas territories of the isolated Tristan da Cunha archipelago
Marañón thrush Turdus maranonicus southern Ecuador and northern Peru
Black-billed thrush Turdus ignobilis western Amazonia and on the Guianan Shield, occurring in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and Bolivia
Campina thrush Turdus arthuri lowlands of se Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname, e Colombia and wc Amazonian Brazil
Yellow-legged thrush Turdus flavipes northern Colombia, Venezuela, far northern Brazil, Trinidad, and Tobago, as well as parts of the Pakaraima Mountains in western Guyana, eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and far northeastern Argentina
White-throated thrush Turdus assimilis Central America
Dagua thrush Turdus daguae Panama to north-western Ecuador
White-necked thrush Turdus albicollis eastern Brazil, far northern Uruguay, eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina
Rufous-backed robin Turdus rufopalliatus southeastern Sonora to the southeastern corner of Oaxaca along the coast and in the Río Balsas drainage, with isolated populations in Mexico City and Oaxaca City
A small brown bird with a greenish-looking underside on some branches. Pale-vented thrush Turdus obsoletus Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru
Pale-breasted thrush Turdus leucomelas eastern and northern South America
Cocoa thrush Turdus fumigatus South America
Hauxwell's thrush Turdus hauxwelli Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
Rufous-bellied thrush Turdus rufiventris southeast Brazil from Maranhão south to Rio Grande do Sul states, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern regions of Argentina
Clay-colored robin Turdus grayi South Texas (where it is rapidly expanding its range) to northern Colombia
Spectacled thrush Turdus nudigenis South America from Colombia and Venezuela south and east to northern Brazil, and in Trinidad and Tobago
Ecuadorian thrush Turdus maculirostris western Ecuador and far northwestern Peru
A brown bird with a white underbelly and a yellow beak stands on a thick branch. Várzea thrush Turdus sanchezorum western Amazon
Unicolored thrush Turdus haplochrous Bolivia

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Turdus:


  1. ^ "Glossary. American Museum of Natural History". Archived from the original on 20 November 2021.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae:Laurentii Salvii. p. 168.
  3. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, eds. (1964). Check-list of Birds of the World. Vol. 10. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 177.
  4. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2023). "Thrushes". IOC World Bird List Version 13.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  6. ^ "Species Updates – IOC World Bird List". Retrieved 2021-05-27.
  7. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Pachycephala (Alisterornis) rufiventris rufiventris | Atlas of Living Australia". Retrieved 2017-02-06.
  8. ^ "Colluricincla harmonica - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-02-17.
  9. ^ The Ibis. British Ornithologists' Union. 1873-01-01.
  10. ^ "Oriolus monacha - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  11. ^ "Myiagra inquieta - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  12. ^ "Brachypodius atriceps - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-10.
  13. ^ "Pycnonotus dispar - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-11.
  14. ^ "Pycnonotus cafer - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-25.
  15. ^ "Pycnonotus aurigaster - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-25.
  16. ^ "Pycnonotus nigricans - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-26.
  17. ^ "Pycnonotus capensis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  18. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus barbatus - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  19. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus arsinoe - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-27.
  20. ^ "Pycnonotus bimaculatus - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  21. ^ "Pycnonotus goiavier analis - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  22. ^ "Andropadus importunus - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-04-10.
  23. ^ "Hypsipetes borbonicus (Reunion Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-25.
  24. ^ Newton, Alfred (1870). Extracts from the Record of Zoological Literature, Vols. I-VI: Containing the Portions Relating to Aves, from 1864 to 1869. Taylor & Francis.
  25. ^ "Hypsipetes madagascariensis (Madagascar Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  26. ^ "Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Himalayan Black Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  27. ^ "Hypsipetes philippinus (Philippine Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  28. ^ "Hypsipetes amaurotis (Brown-eared Bulbul) - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-11-06.

Further reading[edit]

  • Voelker, G.; Rohwer, S.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Outlaw, D.C. (2007). "Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (2): 422–434. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.07.016. PMID 16971142.

External links[edit]